Books about food contact materials

Chemical migration and food contact materials
  Author Rinus Rijk & Rob Veraart

1 EU legislation
2 Petitioning requirements and safety assessment in europe
3 coucil of Europe Resolutions
4 National legislation in Germany
5 The French Regulation on food contact materials
6 Dutch legislation on food contact materials
7 National legislation in Italy
8 Switzerland
9 Legislation on food contact materials in the scandinavian countries and Finland
10 Code of Practice for coating in direct contact with food
11 estimating risk posed by migrants from food contact materials
12 compliance testing, declaration of compliance, and supporting documentation in the EU
13 Food packaging law in the united States
14 Food packaging law in Canada
15 Food pakcaing legislation in South and Central America
16 Isreal's legislation for food contact materials: set for the global markets
17 rules on food contact materials and articles in Japan
18 China food contact chemical legislation summary
19 Prinicpal issues in global food contact: Indian perspective
20 South East Asia food contact
21 Legislation on food contact materials in the Republic of Korea
22 Australia and New Zealand

  Ordering information 1. Edition - March 2010 139.- Euro 2010. XXV, 389 Pages, Hardcover 250 Fig. - Practical Approach Book - ISBN-10: 3-527-31912-3 ISBN-13: 978-3-527-31912-1 - Wiley-VCH, Weinheim
  Author Edited by D Watson, K Barnes and R Sinclair, Food Standards Agency, UK

Most of food sold is packaged and although packaging has many positive benefits, constituents from the packaging may migrate into the food, causing consumers to be exposed to chemicals, some of which may be carcinogenic or genotoxic. As the demand for pre-packaged food and ready meals increases, the potential for consumer exposure to chemicals from food packaging could also increase. This collection surveys recent research in the area with contributions from an international team of authors.
Chemical migration into food: an overview.
Part 1 Regulation and control: Controls in the USA; EU controls; Controls in the southern hemisphere; Traceability and food contact materials.
Part 2 Chemical migration into food: Advances in analysis of food contact materials, migration experiments and screening methods; Exposure estimation; Mathematical modelling; Toxicological and risk assessment.
Part 3 Food contact materials: Recycled materials; Paper and board; Metal packaging; Inks and coatings; Adhesives and solvents; Plastics; Active and intelligent packaging materials.
Part 4 Case studies: Snack and take-away foods; Drinks bottles; Secondary packaging.

  Ordering information Woodhead Publishing Limited; ISBN 1 84569 029 X; Autumn 2006; 512 pages  234 x 156mm  hardback; Approx. £150.00 / US$285.00 / €220.00
Migration from food contact materials
  Author L. L. Katan
  Contents Introduction: Regulatory systems. Hazards to food. Application. Definitions. Non-food contact applications. Materials. Research and development. Structure of the book.
Effects of migration: Adverse and beneficial effects. Assessment of risk. Models. Units. Further reading.
Mathematical modelling: Introduction. Science and legislation. The maximum possible concentration. Types of possible mathematical model. Conclusions. History. References.
Organoleptic assessment: Introduction. Principles of sensory evaluation of food. Sensory testing for taint. Applications to food contact materials. Ethical considerations. Further reading.
Plastics: Relevance. Definitions. Migration testing. Test results. Some remarks on alternative fatty food simulants. Final remarks. References.
Metals: Steel and tinplate. Aluminium. Further reading.
Glass: Assessment. Glass types and migration. Further reading.
Paper and board: Structure and compostion of paper. Paper grades for food contact. General concept of migration from paper. Mass transfer of certain substances. Migration of volatile compounds. Conclusions. References.
Regenerated cellulose film (RCF): History. Composition and legislation. Migration and legislative control. References.
Elastomers: Introduction. Types of rubber compounds used in contact with food. Potential migrating species. Compounding of food contact elastomers. The nitrosamine debate. Analysis of migrating species from elastomers. Published migration data. Further reading.
Methodology: Introduction. The users of migration data. The migration data required. Analysis of materials. The migration exposure. Determination of OM. Analysis of simulants. Analysis of foods. Food surveillance. Analytical quality assurance. Conclusions. Further reading.
Real life and other special situations: Introduction. High-temperature migration. Repeat use. Further reading.
Regulations: Introduction. European Union legislation. US legislation. Japanese legislation. References.
  Ordering information 303 pages • $188.00 + shipping; Publisher: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers; ISBN: 0751402370
Assessing Food Safety of Polymer Packaging
  Author J-M. Vergnaud and I.D. Rosca
  Contents Many foods depend on additives for safety, stability or preservation. Foods are packaged to protect them and keep them in good condition while they are delivered to shops, stacked on shelves or stored at home. The packaging material has to both preserve the food and to protect it from deterioration, outside contamination or damage during distribution and storage; and the packaging material in direct contact with a food must not itself harm, or be harmed by, the food. The packaging material for a particular food must therefore be carefully selected with these considerations in mind.
The book is divided into 7 chapters: Chapter 1 is devoted to a theoretical discussion of the process of diffusion through a sheet; Chapter 2 is concerned with the transfer of the contaminants taking place in packages before they are in contact with food; Chapter 3 is devoted to the problems caused by the process of co-extrusion or co-moulding of the films or of the packages; Chapter 4 is the chapter in which some applications of the theoretical considerations established in Chapters 1 to 3 are developed further; Chapter 5 considers the future, when use of active packaging will be widespread; Chapter 6 discusses the misconceptions arising from the processes or misuse of equations; Chapter 7 details the conclusions arising from the book.
  Ordering information Rapra, ISBN: 1-85957-527-7, price GPB 90, link
Food Contact Legislation for US Markets
  Author K&H
  Contents Introduction; The history of FDA's regulation of food contact materials; State versus federal authority; The adulteration standard of the act; Explicit FDA sanctions of food contact materials; Exemptions from pre-market regulatory authority; The food additive regulations; Special issues; Food contact notifications; Filing a food additive petition or food contact notification; Protecting confidential information; Customer assurance; When to go to FDA; FDA enforcement authority; Other laws bearing on food packaging; Conclusions
  Ordering information Pira, price GPB 295, link
Food Contact Legislation for EU Markets
  Author K&H
  Contents Contents Listing
Introduction; Govermental and legislative background; Framework regulation; specific directives; national laws, regulation of unharmonised materials; mutual recognition; testing for compliance; filing a petition; EFSA; demonstrating safety; other directives; Reach; conclusions
  Ordering information Pira, price GPB 295, link
Food Contact Legislation in Global and Emerging Markets
  Author Vincent Hegarly
  Contents As markets inevitably become more global, it’s not sufficient to just keep up with EU and FDA requirements.  Increasingly businesses need to understand regional legislation particularly in high growth developing sectors such as eastern Europe and China. With a number of major regulatory systems now evolving separately rather than looking to harmonise, keeping up to date is crucial if you are trading globally. Pira’s new study is specially designed to give you a head start, bringing you up to speed with food contact legislation around the world.
- Get a clear picture of today’s legislation region by region and how to comply
- Understand crucial similarities and differences between legislative structures
- See where legislation in emerging markets such as Russia and China is heading
- Understand the practical and regulatory subtleties of successful international product launches.
Regions covered: North America, EU / Western Europe, Eastern Europe and CIS, Australia / New Zealand, Asia (including South Asia and Asia Pacific),  Middle East, Latin America and Caribbean & Africa
  Ordering information Pira, price GPB 295, link
Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling
  Author N.H. Stoffers
  Contents This thesis compiles several research topics during a feasibility study for the certification of 6 reference materials for specific migration testing of food packaging materials. The overall results of the certification exercise, covering results for 3 certification parameters (initial concentration of migrants, specific migration value and diffusion coefficient) from 4 participating laboratories were evaluated. The development and validation of analytical methods for the nylon 12 monomer laurolactam was described. The new methods were applied during two studies. Alternative fatty food simulants for nylon 12 were evaluated, and nylon 12 films were subjected to two food simulants at either side simultaneously, in order to simulate their use as sausage casings. Mathematical models simulating both one- and two-sided migration were described and a way to estimate diffusion and partitioning coefficients of the migrants - including their confidence intervals - was introduced. Effects of gamma-irradiation on some certified reference material candidates were also investigated. Amounts of common polymer additives (Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168) from polyolefins decreased with higher irradiation doses due to the degradation of these additives in the polymer, however, the overall migration did not significantly change. With rising irradiation doses, the sensory quality with respect to odour increased for polystyrene and decreased for the other polymers investigated.
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Release of additives from packaging plastics
  Author Helmroth, I.E.
  Contents The diffusion of small molecules from polymers into food is studied. A better understanding of this process is important for the development of mathematical models to predict migration from packaging plastics into food. To study the effect of food absorption by the plastic on diffusion, the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant (Irganox 1076) and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE) were measured. The migrant diffuses out of the polymer, while the solvent is diffusing inwards. For solvents with low molar mass the diffusion coefficient of Irganox 1076 increases with increasing solvent uptake. No increase in diffusion coefficient was found upon uptake of tri-glycerides such as olive oil. A method using microtoming and GC-analysis is tested for the measurement of migrant concentration profiles inside the polymer. The diffusion of Irganox 1076 and solvent in LDPE have been measured as a function of time. The Fick equation with a migrant diffusivity depending on the solvent concentration gives a good description of the results for isooctane and n-heptane. The description is less good for the measurements with cyclohexane (when the polymer swells strongly). The use of predictive modelling for legislative purposes is evaluated for a deterministic, a worst-case and a new stochastic approach. All approaches give a reasonable, but rough, estimation of the diffusion coefficient. The new stochastic approach has the advantage that an entire probability distribution may be obtained.
  Ordering information Free download here
Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials
  Author Willige, R.W.G. van

Absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied in model systems representing differences in composition of the food matrix. Proteins, b -lactoglobuline and casein, were able to bind flavours, resulting in suppression of absorption of flavour compounds. Polysaccharides, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose, increased viscosity, and consequently decreased absorption. Disaccharides, lactose and saccharose, increased absorption, probably caused by a "salting out" effect of less apolar flavour compounds. The presence of a relative small amount of oil (50 g/l) decreased absorption substantially. Combined oily model systems, oil/casein and oil/pectin, showed a similar effect. The extent of absorption of flavour compounds by LLDPE was influenced by food components in the order: oil or fat >> polysaccharides and proteins > disaccharides. A model based on the effect of the polarity (log P) of flavour compounds and on their partitioning coefficients between food(matrix) and packaging material was developed. The model is able to predict absorption of flavour compounds from foods into LLDPE when lipids in the food matrix are the determining factor in flavour absorption. Results show that the model fits nicely with experimental data of real foods skim and whole milk.
LLDPE, polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET film and PET bottle) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) were immersed in a model flavour solution at different temperatures up to 14 days. The absorption rate and/or total amount of absorbed compounds increased considerably with increasing temperature. Depending on temperature, the total absorption of flavour compounds by the polyolefins (LLDPE and PP) was up to 2400 times higher than by the polyesters (PC, PET and PEN).
The effect of absorbed flavour compounds on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), PP, PC and PET was studied. Due to swelling of the polymers as a result of absorption of flavour compounds, LDPE and PP showed a significant increase of oxygen permeability of 21% and 130%. The oxygen permeability of PC showed a significant decrease of 11% due to occupation or blockage of the "micro-cavities" by the absorbed flavour compounds. Flavour absorption by PET did not affect the oxygen permeability significantly.
The influence of flavour absorption LDPE, PC and PET on the taste perception of a flavour model solution and orange juice stored in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic films. Although the content of flavour compounds between controls and polymer treated samples decreased substantially due to absorption, no significant effect on the taste perception of the model solution and orange juice were observed by triangular taste panel tes

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